A large portion of Türkiye is situated geographically in the Mediterranean region, where climatic conditions are normally quite temperate. However, Türkiye's diverse landscape creates significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to another. The mountains that run parallel to the coasts play a major role in shaping Türkiye's climate. While the coastal areas enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolian plateau experiences extremes of hot summers and cold winters, with limited rainfall.
The Aegean and Mediterranean coasts have cool, rainy winters and hot, moderately dry summers. Annual precipitation in those areas varies from 580 to 1,300 millimeters, depending on location. The Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of rainfall. The eastern part of the Black Sea region receives 2,200 millimeters annually and is the only region of Türkiye that receives rainfall throughout the year.
Türkiye's diverse regions have different climates because of their irregular topography. The Taurus Mountains are close to the coast and prevent rain clouds from penetrating to the interior of the country. Most rain cloud precipitation falls on the coastal regions. As rain clouds pass over the mountains and reach central Anatolia they have no significant rain-producing ability. In the Eastern region of Anatolia, the mountain elevations exceed 2500-3000 m. The northern Black Sea Mountains and Caucasian Mountains hold back the rain clouds. Central Anatolia is therefore affected by the continental climate, with very long and cold winters. Minimum temperatures of -30°C to -38°C are observed in the mountainous areas in the east. Snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year. Winters are bitterly cold with frequent, heavy snowfall. Villages in the region remain isolated for days at a time during winter storms.
ANNUAL AVERAGE PRECIPITATION OF TÜRKİYE
Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures above 30°C. Spring and autumn are generally mild, however, sudden hot and cold spells frequently occur during both seasons. Annual precipitation averages about 500-800 millimeters. Actual amounts vary according to elevation.
LONG TERM MEAN TEMPERATURE OF TÜRKİYE
The climate in Istanbul and the Sea of Marmara region the climate is moderate (winter 4°C and summer 27°C); In winter, however, the temperatures can drop below zero. In western Anatolia there is a mild Mediterranean climate with average temperatures of 9°C in winter and 29°C in summer. The southern coast of Anatolia experiences similar climatic conditions. The climate of the Anatolian Plateau is a steppe climate. There is a great temperature difference between day and night. Precipitation is slight and is usually in form of snow. The average temperature is 23°C in summer and -2°C in winter. The climate in the Black Sea area is wet and humid (summer 23°C, winter 7°C). In Eastern Anatolia and South-Eastern Anatolia there is a long winter, and snow remains on the ground from November until the end of April (the average temperature in winter is -13°C and in summer 17°C).
CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION OF TÜRKİYE ACCORDING TO AYDENİZ FORMULA
The driest regions are the Karaman, Iğdır and Şanlıurfa, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimeters. The Black Sea coastal region receives the greatest amount of precipitation. Annual rainfall can reach 2,200 millimeters annually. The region receives rainfall year-round.