|If you are interested in the music of the world and different
climates, Anatolia is a music geography, which you must surely meet.
Anatolia, namely Little Asia invites you to the universe of sound, with its whole charm and magnificence all among the cultures created by human kind.
Anatolia is peninsula of the most splendid civilizations of the word, east of Mediterranean, where today the modern Turkish Republic is established.
Although the music kinds present in todays Turkey serve an incredible variety, it is possible to sum the traditional music type under three headlines:
1.ANATOLIA MUSIC (FOLK MUSIC)
The leader of the most important music kinds served by Anatolia, is the inheritance of many centuries, the potential of _ folk _ music. Although this music carries the similar characteristic with the different ethnic music kinds of the world, it has incredible varieties with the sound system, modes, measures and rhythm, types, forms, performance characteristics and repertory it carries.
In Anatolia music, the number of sound used in an octave is 18. Therefore, we have microtanel sound frequency. These are used in melody sounds as characteristic types.
Structures like the moods of antique ages and some special sound structures, which are not seen in other countries music, are found in Anatolia music, which has strong loyalty to melodic roots. Anatolia music has very rich compositions in metric evaluations. Especially the rhythm structure named as aksak is not found in any other different regions of the world.
Anatolia music instruments are vurmalı, stringed wind instruments. Instruments such as davul, zurna, kaval, kemençe etc. are the characteristic folk instruments of Anatolia. No doubt, the most widespread and most loved instrument is halk lutları having a wide family and also named as saz.
Different regional and local performance characteristics are found in Anatolia music. These characteristics are evaluated as the typical reflection of the cultural and ethic variety. They show the heterogeneous side of Anatolia music. Types such as zeybek , semah , halay, bar, horon etc. Are folk dances at the time.
The verbal products of Anatolia music are collected under a general name türkü. Türküs are music types which are called as kırık hava and expressed as certain measure numbers. On the other hand, the type called uzun hava represent the sadness in Anatolia music. Uzun havas having a kind of porlando style, are different from improvisation because they have certain melodic patterns.
2) CLASSICAL TURKISH MUSIC
Turkish Music , named as classical today , expresses a music kind played at the palace of the padişah and the mansion of the leaders of the state and reach people . This music was developed by composes and performers who were educated at the enderun which was a music institute of the place. It was an elite kind of music having ______ systems, sourcing from composition concepts.
When we consider the main structures , Classical Turkish music is the evaluation of the sound, tunes, systems repertory and forms it uses.
At this music , one eight is dividend into 24 unequal parts . this little sound frequencies ,can be expressed as little sound units which is one ninth of a full sound . the voice pitch used in classical music has special names such as çargah neva hüseyni substituting do re mi of the western regions.
Makam forming the sound universe of some special quartette and quintette which are described as cins by edvar , ancient theory books .They are dividend in to three groups acceding to their establishment.
The fist one is simple melody simple melody can be expressed in an octave and the strong sound is in 4th or the 5th degree in the order where the melody is used .There are 13 of those which are called as hüseyni hicaz ,uşşak, neva ,buselik, rast ,etc.
Mürekkep melodies in the second group ,from one of the most original pasts of historical Turkish music. These melodies namely hüzzam , nişabur , nikriz bestenigar etc. enlighten the historical analysis of traditional music both by their usage and their formation . Therefore, it is possible to understand the development trend and way of the music in time.
Şed melodies in the last group are especially transposed melodies for example buselik melody, when the original dügah (la) is changed to rast (sol ) nihavent melody is obtained.
Although the number of used melodies is not specifically known , the number of those known and used to day, reaches about 50
Measure & rhythm used in classical music are called usul they are divided in to two: a. küçük usuller b. büyük usuller. Usuls up to 15 timing is called küçük usul and the usul s over 15 timing is called büyük usul In classical music usul s have names such as nim sofyan, semai, sofyan and türk aksağı
The basic vocal, instrumental a & d vocal, instrumental composition types are kar, şarkı ,peşrev ,saz semaisi.
The most important composers are Itri, Dede Efendi , Zeki Dede and Hacı Arif Bey.
3) RELIGIOUS MUSIC
Religious Turkish Music is a branch growing especially through classical Turkish music sound since its existence. It is divided into two groups
As understood from its name Mosque Music is composed at mosques where Muslims worship.
It is a vocal music where hafız and imams having good voices, sing the ayets from Kuran-ı Kerim the basic book of Islam. It has types such as ezan, salat, tekbir, mevlid nat. None of the instruments is used in this music kind .
The most important part of religious music is tasavvufi music tasavvuf is the name given to Islamic mystery Religious and philosophical trends describing the characteristics of God and the establishment of the universe through vahdet-i vücut (unification of existence) are together under the roof of tasavvuf. The music composed under this concept is called tasavvuf music or sufi music the ways expressing tasavvuf belief in different evaluations and ideas are called tarikat in Islam. These are the mystic music showing the love for God, spirit and other word, composed by big tarikat s such as Mevlevi ,Bektaşi ,Gülşeni and Kadiri at their own tekke s in the sema ayin Different kind of instruments are used together with human voice in this music , but the typical instrument is ney. The voice of ney, a wind instrument expresses the mystic and mysterious sound of sufi music.